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Crimes of Violence Under §2l1.2 Warranting 16 Level Enhancement

This list was created to assist attorneys in determining whether or not a prior conviction is a crime of violence warranting a 16 level enhancement under U.S.S.G. §2L1.2(b)(1)(A)(ii). This list will be updated on a monthly basis. It will attempt to include the most recent 5th Circuit decisions, government concessions at the appellate level and district court decisions at the trial level. While the focus of this list is crimes of violence warranting a 16 level enhancement, a few selected aggravated felonies will be included as well as a few cases from other districts and some important drug cases.

Disclaimer: Although every effort will be made to keep the list updated, it may not be complete. This list includes 5th Circuit decisions and district court decisions in the Western District. It does not include decisions from other circuits or districts. Also, it does not include all possible arguments regarding each prior conviction. Finally, even if an offense is listed as a crime of violence, attorneys should review the listed case and look at the reasoning behind the court's decision. You may still have a viable objections or you may want to object to preserve the issue or challenge the court's reasoning.

Alabama Alaska Arizona1

Aggravated Assault (Class 6 Felony), ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN §13-1204 (Please note this case if from the 10th Circuit) Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony/Not a Felony

Aggravated Assault on Law Enforcement Office

Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony/Agreement Reached for 4 Level Enhancement

Aggravated Assault Serious Physical Injury, ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN § 13-1204 (A)(1)
Not a Crime of Violence

Aggravated Assault with a Deadly Weapon, ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN §13-1203
Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony/4 Level Enhancement Imposed

The Ninth Circuit disagrees with the Fifth Circuit's holding in US v. Mungia-Portillo and has held that Aggravated Assault under ARIZ. REV. STAT. §13-1204(A)(11) is not a crime of violence. US v. Esparza-Herrera, No. 07-30490, 557 F.3d 1019 (9th Cir. 2009).

Attempted Aggravated Assault, ARIZ. REV. STAT. §13-1204 and §13-1001 Not a Crime of Violence

Sexual Assault, ARIZ. REV. STAT. §13-1406
Not a Crime of Violence/ Not an Aggravated Felony/ 4 Level Enhancement Imposed

Arkansas

Aggravated Assault, ARK. CODE ANN. § 5-13-204
US v. Esparza-Perez, No. 11-50090, --F.3d--, 2012 WL 1660683 (5th Cir. 2012)
Not a Crime of Violence

Battery in the Second Degree, ARK. CODE ANN. §5-13-202
Not a Crime of Violence

Burglary, ARK CODE ANN. §5-39-201(2004)
Not a Crime of Violence

Forgery, ARK. CODE ANN. § 5-27-201(a)
Not an Aggravated Felony

California

Attempted Robbery, CAL. PENAL CODE §211
Not A Crime of Violence

Burglary

1. CAL.PENALCODE§459
Contact Attorney: Ahilan T. Arulanantham (contact Anne Berton) Not a Crime of Violence

2. CAL. PENAL CODE §459
US v. Ortega-Gonzaga, No. 06-40493, 490 F.3d 393 (5th Cir. 2007) Not a Crime of Violence

3. CAL.PENALCODE§459
US v. Gonzalez-Terrazas, No. 07-50375, 529 F.3d 293 (5th Cir. 2008) Not a Crime of Violence

Burglary First Degree, CAL. PENAL CODE §§ 459 & 460(a)
US v. Echeverria-Gomez, No. 09-50261, 627 F.3d 971 (5th Cir. 2010) Aggravated Felony

Child Abuse, CAL. PENAL CODE §273a(a)
US v. Rodriguez-Sandoval, No. EP-06-CR-1334-PRM, 2006 WL 3030779 (W.D. Tex. October 16, 2006)
Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony/Four Levels Imposed

Criminal Terroristic Threats, CAL. PENAL CODE §422

1. US v. De La Rosa-Hernandez, 264 Fed. Appx. 446 (5th Cir. 2008)(unpub.)

Not a Crime of Violence

2. US v. Cruz-Rodriguez, No. 09-40500, 2010 WL 4299274 (5th Cir. 2010) Not a Crime of Violence

False Imprisonment, CAL. PENAL CODE §236 AND 237
Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony

Kidnapping, CAL. PENAL CODE §207(a)
US v. Moreno-Florean, No. 07-50833, 542 F.3d 445 (5th Cir. 2008) Not a Crime of Violence

Oral Copulation, Victim Unconscious and Sexual Penetration, Victim Unconscious,

CAL. PENAL CODE §288a(f) and 289 (d)
US v. Raya-Romero, No. 04-40447, 157 Fed. Appx. 703 (5th Cir. 2005) (unpublished) Not a Crime of Violence b/c not supported by the record

Oral Copulation of a Minor, CAL. PENAL CODE §288a(b)(1)
Us v. Munoz-Ortenza, No. 07-51344, 563 F.3d 112 (5th Cir. 2009) Not a Crime of Violence

Possession of a Deadly Weapon, CAL. PENAL CODE §1202 (a)
US v. Medina-Anicacio, No. 01-41171, 325 F.3d 638 (5th Cir. 2003) Not a Crime of Violence/ Not an Aggravated Felony

Sexual Battery, CAL. PENAL CODE §243.4 (1998)2
US v. Bonilla-Mungia, No. 03-41751, 422 F.3d 316 (5th Cir. 2005)
Possibly Not a Crime of Violence/Remanded: 200 Fed.Appx. 376 (5th Cir. 2006)(unpub.)

Taking Vehicle without Consent, CAL. PENAL CODE §10851(a) Gonzalez v. Dueñas-Alvarez, 127 S.Ct. 815 (2007)
Aggravated Felony

Colorado
Attempted Second Degree Kidnapping, COLO. REV. STAT. §18-3-302(1)

US v. Cervantes-Blanco, No. 06-50738, 504 F.3d 576 (5th Cir. 2007)

2 The Ninth Circuit held that a sexual battery conviction under CAL. PENAL CODE § 243.4(a) does not constitute a crime of violence. US v. Lopez-Montanez, No. 04-50260, 421 F.3d 926 (9th Cir. 2005).

Not a Crime of Violence/Appealed/Remanded

Criminal Attempt to Commit Assault in the Second Degree, COLO. REV. STAT. §18-2- 101 and §18-3-203
Not a Crime of Violence

First Degree Criminal Trespass, COLO. REV. STAT. § 18-4-502 Contact Attorney: Edgar Holguin
Aggravated Felony (8 level Enhancement Imposed)

Menacing

1. COLO. REV. STAT. §18-3-206
US v. Landeros-Arreola, No. 00-50512, 260 F.3d 407 (5th Cir. 2001) Not an Aggravated Felony

2. COLO. REV. STAT. §18-3-206 Contact Attorney: Maureen Franco Not a Crime of Violence

3. COLO. REV. STAT. §18-3-206
Contact Attorney: Manuel Acosta-Rivera
Appellate Attorney: Henry Bemporad
Not a Crime of Violence at Resentencing/Not an Aggravated Felony/ 4 Level Enhancement Imposed

Misdemeanor Assault, COLO. REV. STAT. §18-3-204
Not a Crime of Violence

Misdemeanor Third Degree Sexual Assault, COLO. REV. STAT. §18-3-404
Not a Crime of Violence

Misdemeanor Unlawful Sexual Contact, COLO. REV. STAT. §18-3-404
Appellate Attorney: Carolyn Fuentes
Government conceded Not a Crime of Violence

Trespass of An Automobile, COLO. REV. STAT. §18-4-502 (2006)
US v. Portillo-Covos, No. 09-50061, 373 Fed.Appx. 476 (5th Cir. 2010)(unpub.)
Not an Aggravated Felony

Connecticut Delaware
District of Columbia

Florida

Aggravated Battery, FLA. STAT. §784.045 (1998)
Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony/4 Level Enhancement Imposed

Aggravated Stalking, FLA. STAT. §784.048(4)
US v. Insaulgarat, No. 02-40917, 378 F.3d 456 (5th Cir. 2004) Not a Crime of Violence

Battery, FLA. STAT. §784.03(1)(a), (2) (2003)
Johnson v. US, No. 08-6925, 130 S. Ct. 1265 (2010)
Not a Violent Felony Under ACCA (Offering approach to interpreting state law in connection with enhancements)

Battery of a Police Officer, FLA. STAT. §784.07/784.03
Not a Crime of Violence

Burglary

1. FLA. STAT. §810.02(1), (3)(b)(2004)
Not a Crime of Violence

2. FLA. STAT. §810.02(3)(1995)
US v. Gomez-Guerra, No. 05-41789, 485 F.3d 301 (5th Cir. 2007) Not a Crime of Violence

3. FLA. STAT. § 810.02
Not a Crime of Violence/ Govt Conceded at Appellate Level

Committing a Lewd and Lascivious Act Upon a Child Under the Age of 16 Years,

Fla. Stat. §800.04(2)(1999) Contact Attorney: Anne Berton Not a Crime of Violence

DUI/Manslaughter and DUI/Bodily Injury, FLA. STAT. §316.193 (3)(c)(2) & (3) US v. Valenzuela, No. 03-20395, 389 F3d 1305 (5th Cir. 2004)
Not a Crime of Violence

Possession of a Firearm by a Felon, FLA. STAT. §790.23(1)
US v. Sanchez, No. 11-40139, 2012 WL 89956 (5th Cir. 2012) (unpub.) Aggravated Felony (under plain error review)

Throwing a Deadly Missile, FLA. STAT. §790.19
Not an Aggravated Felony

Georgia

Family Violence Battery, GA. CODE ANN. §16-5-23.1 (f)
US v. Lopez-Hernandez, No. 02-21078, 112 Fed. Appx. 984 (5th Cir. 2004)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

Involuntary Manslaughter, GA. CODE ANN. § 16-5-3

Hawaii Idaho

Accessory to First Degree Murder, IDAHO CODE ANN. §18-205
United States v. Gamboa-Garcia, No. 09-50513, 2010 WL 3633061 (5th Cir. Sept. 21, 2010)
Aggravated Felony

Attempted Robbery and Battery, IDAHO CODE ANN §§18-6501, 18-6502, 18-306, 18-909 and 18-903
Not a Crime of Violence/Aggravated Felony 9 Level Enhancement Imposed

Second Degree Burglary, IDAHO CODE ANN §18-1401
Not a Violent Felony under 924(e)(ACCA)/Govt Conceded at Appellate Level

Illinois
Aggravated Battery

1. 720 ILL. STAT. CH. 38 §12-4(b)(1)
Contact Attorney: Selena Solis
Not a Crime of Violence at Resentencing

2. 720 ILL. COMP. STAT. § 5/12-4 (1996)
US v. Bustos-Rios, No. 05-50007, DR-04-CR-530
Crime of Violence/Appealed/Remanded

3. 720 ILL. COMP. STAT. §5/12-4
US v. Gomez-Vargas, 111 Fed.Appx. 741 (5th Cir. 2004)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

4. 720 ILL. COMP.STAT. §5/12-4
US v. Aguilar-Delgado, No. 04-40309, 120 Fed.Appx 522 (5th Cir. 2004)(unpub.)
Not a Crime of Violence

5. 720 ILL. STAT. CH. 38 §12-4(a)(1986) Not a Crime of Violence

6. 720 ILL. STAT. CH. 38 §12-4(b)(1)
Not a Crime of Violence/ 8 Level Enhancement Imposed

Aggravated Battery/Peace Officer/Fireman

US v. Diaz-Cortez, No. 10-40272, 2011 WL 4601030 (5th Cir. 2011)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

Aggravated Stalking, 720 ILL.STAT. CH. 38§12-7.4
Gov't Conceded Not a Crime of Violence/Remanded/ 4 Level Enhancement Imposed

Domestic Battery, 720 ILL. COMP. STAT. §5/12-3.2 (1996)
Not a Crime of Violence

Domestic Battery-Class 4 Felony, 720 ILL.COMP. STAT. §5/12-3.2(a)(2) US v. Rocha-Martinez, A-10-CR-326
Not a Crime of Violence/4 Level Enhancement Imposed

Domestic Battery and Battery Causing Bodily Harm, 720 ILL. COMP.STAT.§5/12-3.2- A-1; 5/12-3-A-1
Not a Crime of Violence

Failure to Report, 720 ILL. COMP.STAT.§5/31-6(A) Chambers v. US, No. 06-11206, 555 U.S. 122 (2009) Not a Violent Felony Under ACCA

Indiana Iowa

Assault with Intent to Commit Sexual Abuse, IOWA CODE ANN. §709.11 (West 2003) Contact Attorneys: Christina Norton, Manuel Pacheco, and Bill Fry
Not a Crime of Violence

Going Armed with Intent, IOWA CODE §708.8
Not a Crime of Violence

Misdemeanor Serious Domestic Abuse Assault, IOWA CODE ANN. §§236.2(2), 708.1 AND 708.2A
US v. Favela-Masuca, No. 06-40607, 247 Fed.Appx. 464 (5th Cir. 2007)(unpub.)
Not an Aggravated Felony

Kansas

Aggravated Battery, KAN. STAT. §21-3414(a)(1)(C)
Larin-Ulloa v. Gonzalez, No. 03-60721, 462 F.3d 456 (5th Cir. 2006)

Not an Aggravated Felony

Aggravated Sexual Battery, KAN. STAT. §21-3518
US v. Matute-Galdamez, No. 03-41728, 111 Fed. Appx. 264 (5th Cir. 2004)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

Attempted Aggravated Sexual Battery, KAN. STAT. §21-3518 US v. Meraz-Enriquez, No. 04-40607, 442 F.3d 331 (5th Cir. 2006) Not a Crime of Violence

Kentucky

Assault, KY. REV. STAT. ANN §508025(1)(a)(1)
Not a Crime of Violence/Eight Level Enhancement Imposed

Misdemeanor 4th Degree Assault, KY. REV. STAT. ANN. §508.030
Government conceded at trial level Not a Crime of Violence

Louisiana

Unauthorized Entry of Inhabited Dwelling, LA. REV. STAT. ANN. 14:62.3
Not a Crime of Violence/Aggravated Felony 8 Level Enhancement Imposed

Maine Maryland Massachusetts

Assault and Battery,

1. MASS. GEN. LAWS CH. 265, §13A
Andrade v. Gonzalez, No. 04-30247, 459 F.3d 538 (5th Cir. 2006) Aggravated Felony

2. MASS. GEN. LAWS CH. 265, §13A(a)(2004)
US v. Grant-Martinez, No. EP-07-CR-1163-PRM, 511 F.Supp.2d 738 (W.D. Tex. 2007)
Not a Crime of Violence (insufficient record)

3. MASS. GEN. LAWS CH. 265, §13A
US v. Holloway, No. 08-2273, 630 F.3d 252 (1st Cir. 2011) Not a Violent Felony Under ACCA

Assault and Battery with a Deadly Weapon, MASS. GEN. LAWS CH. 265, §15A(b)
Not a Crime of Violence

Michigan

Home Invasion

1. MICH. COMP. LAWS § 750.110
Not a Crime of Violence/ Not an Aggravated Felony

2. MICH. COMP. LAWS § 750.110a(3)
Molina-Ramirez v. Holder, No. 09-60070, 362 Fed.Appx. 387 (5th Cir. 2010)(unpub.)
Aggravated Felony

Manslaughter, MICH. COMP. LAWS §750.321(1990) Not a Crime of Violence

Minnesota

First Degree Damage to Property (Gross Misdemeanor), MINN. STAT. §609.13
Not a Felony/No Enhancement

Fourth Degree Criminal Sexual Conduct, MINN. STAT. §609.345(1)(c) US v. Rosas-Pulido, No. 06-41223, 526 F.3d 829 (5th Cir. 2008)
Not a Crime of Violence

Terroristic Threats , MINN. STAT. §609.713 (2000)
US v. Naranjo-Hernandez, No. 03-41081, 133 Fed. Appx. 96 (5th Cir. 2005) ( unpub.) Not Crime of Violence

Mississippi Missouri

Sexual Assault, MO. REV. STAT. §566.040 (1)
US v. Sarmiento-Funes, No. 03-40741, 374 F3d. 336 (5th Cir. 2004) Not a Crime of Violence

Montana

Sexual Intercourse Without Consent, MONT. CODE ANN. § 45-5-503(1)

1. Contact Attorney: Sandra Lewis

Not a Crime of Violence

2. Perez-Gonzalez v. Holder, No. 10-60798, 667 F.3d 622 (5th Cir. 2012)
Not an Aggravated felony (did not satisfy rape definition under aggravated felony)

Nebraska

Manslaughter, NEB. REV. STAT. §28-305 (1999)
US v. Ramos-Guerrero, No. 06-41593, 254 Fed.Appx. 305 (5th Cir. 2007)(unpub.) Ñot a Crime of Violence (insufficient record)

Theft By Receiving Stolen Property, NEB. REV. STAT. § 28-517 (2008)
US v. Miller-Ortiz, No. 09-50682, 2010 WL 4269462 (5th Cir. 2010)(unpub.) Aggravated Felony

Nevada

Invasion of the Home, NEV. REV. STAT. §205.067
Not a Crime of Violence

Possession of Stolen Vehicle, Nev. Rev. Stat. §205.273
Not an Aggravated Felony

New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico

Abandonment or Abuse of a Child, N.M. Stat. § 30-6-1

1. Contact Attorney: Erik Hanshew

Not an Aggravated Felony/Four Level Enhancement Imposed

2. US v. Torres-Reyes, No. 10-51011, 444 Fed.Appx. 828 (5th Cir. 2011)
Not a Crime of Violence

Criminal Sexual Penetration, N.M. STAT. §30-9-1 (c)
Not a Crime of Violence

Driving Under the Influence, N.M. STAT. §66-8-102(A),(C) Begay v. US, No. 06-11543, 553 U.S. 137 (2008)
Not a Violent Felony under ACCA

Vandalism, N.M. Stat. §30-15-1
Not An Aggravated Felony

New York

Attempted Gang Assault in the Second Degree, N.Y. PENAL LAW § 120.06
Not a Crime of Violence

Attempted Manslaughter, N.Y. PENAL LAW §125.15 US v. Bonilla, No. 06-40894, 524 F.3d 647 (5th Cir. 2008) Not a Crime of Violence

Criminal Possession of Stolen Property in the Third Degree, N.Y. PENAL LAW § 165.50

Burke v. Mukasey, No. 06-60710 509 F.3d 695 (5th Cir. 2007) Aggravated Felony

Second Degree Assault, N.Y. PENAL LAW §120.05 Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony

North Carolina

Breaking and Entering, N.C. GEN. STAT. §14-54(a)
Government Conceded at Appellate Level that it is Not a Crime of Violence/ 8 Levels Imposed

Involuntary Manslaughter, N.C. GEN. STAT. §14-18(1994)
Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony/4 Levels Imposed

Involuntary Manslaughter

US v. Peterson, No. 08-4889, 629 F.3d 432 (4th Cir. 2011) Not a Crime of Violence Under Career Offender

Possession of Marijuana With Intent To Sell, N.C. Gen. Stat. §90-95
US v. Simmons, No. 08-4475, 649 F.3d 237 (4th Cir. 2011)
Not a Predicate Felony Conviction under the CSA based on Hypothetical Criminal History Enhancement

North Dakota Ohio

Aggravated Burglary, OHIO REV. CODE ANN. §2911.11(A)(1)(2001) US v. Ramirez, No. 08-41192, 344 Fed.Appx. 962 (5th Cir. 2009)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

Involuntary Manslaughter, OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 2903.4
US v. Pickens, 1-10cr46 (S.D. Ohio)
Not a Crime of Violence (For purposes of Career Offender Definition)

Oklahoma

Assault and Battery, OKLA. STAT. TIT. 21, §644C
US v. Miranda-Ortegon, No. 10-51129, 670 F.3d 661 (5th Cir. 2012) Contact Attorney: Sandra Lewis
Not a Crime of Violence

First Degree Manslaughter, OKLA. STAT. TIT. 21, §711(1)
US v. Gutierrez-Salinas, No. 06-41346, 257 Fed.Appx. 448 (5th Cir. 2007)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

Kidnapping, OKLA. STAT. TIT. 21, § 741
US v. Najera-Mendoza, No. 11-50187, -F.3d-, 2012 WL 2054937 (5th Cir. 2012)

Not a Crime of Violence

Maiming, OKLA. STAT. TIT. 21, §751
Not a Crime of Violence

Oregon Pennsylvania

Aggravated Assault, 18 PA. CONS. STAT.§ 2702 (2000)
US v. Gonzalez-Molina, No. 09-10097, 353 Fed.Appx. 959 (5th Cir. 2009)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence (Gov't conceded)

Terroristic Threats

1. 18 PA. CONS. STAT. §2706 (2003)
United States v. Martinez-Paramo, 380 F.3d 799 (5th Cir. 2004) Not Crime of Violence

2. 18 PA. CONS. STAT. §2706(a)
US v. Ortiz-Gomez, No. 08-40292, 562 F.3d 683 (5th Cir. 2009) Not a Crime of Violence

Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee

Aggravated Burglary, TENN. CODE ANN §39-14-403
US v. Herrera-Montes, No. 06-41426, 490 F3.d 390 (5th Cir. 2007) Not a Crime of Violence

Facilitation of Aggravated Robbery, TENN. CODE ANN. §39-11-403 US v. Trejo-Palacios, 418 F. Supp. 2d 915 (S.D. Tex. 2006)
Not Crime of Violence/It is an Aggravated Felony/ 8 Levels Imposed

Reckless Aggravated Assault, TENN. CODE ANN. §39-13-102
Not a Crime of Violence

Texas

Aggravated Assault with a Deadly Weapon, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN §22.02(a)(4) (1993)
Not a Crime of Violence (Note: There may be some arguments to the pre-1994 statute)

Aggravated Assault of a Peace Officer

1. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.02(a)(2) (1979)
US v. Fierro-Reyna, No. 05-51198, 466 F.3d 324 (5th Cir. 2006) Not a Crime of Violence

2. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.02(a)(2)
US v. Antuna-Moran, No. 06-40103, 488 F.3d 1048 (5th Cir. 2007) Not a Crime of Violence

3. Tex. Penal Code Ann. §22.02(a)(2)(A)
US v. Mendez-Rubi, No. 10-10453, 2011 WL 3628876 (5th Cir. 2011) Not an Aggravated Felony/Crime of Violence under 16(a)

Assault

1. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.01(a)(1) (misd)
US v. Villegas-Hernandez, No. 05-40988, 468 F.3d 874 (5th Cir. 2006) Not a Crime of Violence/ Not an Aggravated Felony

2. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.01(a)(1)
US v. Davila-Solis, No. 06-40826, 217 Fed. Appx. 402 (5th Cir. 2007)(unpub.)
Not an Aggravated Felony

Assault on a Public Servant-Third Degree, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.01
Not a Crime of Violence

Attempted Aggravated Assault-Third Degree, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.02
Not a Crime of Violence

Bond Jumping, TEX. PENAL CODE §38.10
Not an Aggravated Felony (b/c no element in the offense requiring a court order)

Burglary of Building, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §30.04
US v. Rodriguez-Guzman, No. 94-60379, 56 F.3d 18 (5th Cir. 1995) Aggravated Felony

Burglary of a Building, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §30.02 (1990), applying 1974 version US v. Rodriguez-Rodriguez, No. 02-20697, 388 F3d 466 (5th Cir. 2004)
Not a Crime of Violence

Burglary of Habitation (TEX. PENAL CODE §30.02(a)(3) is not a Crime of Violence, see below)

1. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §30.02(a)(3) Contact Attorney: Erik Hanshew Not a Crime of Violence

2. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §30.02(a)(3)
US v. Herrera-Montes, No. 06-41426, 490 F.3d 390 (5th Cir. 2007)
Not a Crime of Violence (Although this case deals with a Tennessee statute, it is identical to Texas statute 30.02(a)(3)).

3. TEX. PENAL CODE ARTICLE 1389 OR 1390 (1963)
US v. Montoya-Beltran, No. 07-51410, slip copy, 2008 WL 3876507 (5th Cir. 2008)
Not a Crime of Violence

4. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §30.02
Not a Crime of Violence/Eight Levels Imposed

5. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §30.02(a)(3)
US v. Beltran-Ramirez, No. 07-50218, 266 Fed. Appx. 371 (5th Cir. 2008)(unpub.)
Not A Crime of Violence

6. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §30.02(a)(3)
US v. Castro, No. 07-40762, 272 Fed. Appx. 385 (5th Cir. 2008)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

7. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §30.02(a)(3)
US v. Constante, No. 07-41004, 544 F.3d 584 (5th Cir. 2008) Not a Crime of Violence under 18 USC §924(e)

Criminal Mischief, TEX. PENAL CODE §28.03 (a)(3)
US v. Landeros - Gonzalez, No. 01-10066, 262 F.3d 424 (5th Cir. 2001) Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony

Criminally Negligent Homicide, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §19.05 US v. Dominguez-Ochoa, No. 03-40260, 386 F.3d 639 (5th Cir. 2004) Not a Crime of Violence

Child Endangerment, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.041 (c)
US v. Calderon-Pena, No. 02-20331, 383 F.3d 254 (5th Cir. 2004) Not a Crime of Violence

Deadly Conduct, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN.§22.05(b)(2) Not a Crime of Violence/4 Level Enhancement Imposed

Driving While Intoxicated, TEX. PENAL CODE §49.04
US v. Chapa-Garza, 243 F.3d 921 (5th Cir. 2001) see also 262 F.3d 479 (5th Cir. 2001) Not a Crime of Violence/ Not an Aggravated Felony

Engaging in Organized Criminal Activity Involving Vehicle Theft, TEX. PENAL CODE § 31.03
US v. Blancas-Rosas, No. 10-40679, 2011 WL 409012 (5th Cir. 2011) (unpub.) Aggravated Felony

Evading Arrest with a Motor Vehicle, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §38.04(b)(1) US v. Sanchez-Ledezma, No. 10-40451, 630 F.3d 447 (5th Cir. 2011) Aggravated Felony

Felony Assault, TEX. PENAL CODE §§22.01(a)(1) AND (b)(2)
US v. Cano-Esparza, No. 06-41020, 243 Fed. Appx.15 (5th Cir. 2007)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

Indecency with a Child

1. TEX. PENAL CODE §21.11 (a)(1)
US v. Velazquez-Overa, 100 F.3d 418 (5th Cir. 1996) Aggravated Felony

2. TEX. PENAL CODE §21.11(a)(2) (by Exposure)
US v. Zavala-Sustaita, 214 F.3d 601 (5th Cir. 2000) Aggravated Felony

Injury to a Child

1. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.04
US v. Garcia-Cantu, No. 01-41029, 302 F.3d 308 (5th Cir. 2002) Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony/4 Level Enhancement Imposed

2. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.04
Not a Crime of Violence at Resentencing/Not an Aggravated Felony/ 4 Level Enhancement Imposed

3. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.04
US v. Vasquez-Torres, No. 04-41172, 134 Fed. Appx 648 (5th Cir. 2005)(unpub.)
Not a Crime of Violence/Not an Aggravated Felony/4 Level Enhancement Imposed

4. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.04
Not a Crime of Violence at Resentencing/Not an Aggravated Felony/ 4 Level Enhancement Imposed

5. (By Criminal Negligence), TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.04
Not an Aggravated Felony/Four Level Enhancement Imposed

6. TEX. PENAL CODE §22.04(a)
US v. Andino-Ortega, No. 09-40498, 608 F.3d 305 (5th Cir.2010) Not a Crime of Violence

Intoxicated Assault, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §49.07 (1994)
US v. Vargas-Duran, No. 02-20116, 356 F.3d 598 (5th Cir. 2004) Not a Crime of Violence

Intoxication Manslaughter, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §49.08
US v. Iovino, No. Crim. A. B-05-602, 405 F. Supp.2d 771 (S.D. Tex. 2005) Not a Crime of Violence

Possession of Short-Barrel Firearm, TEX. PENAL CODE §46.05 US v. Diaz-Diaz, No. 02-20392, 327 F.3d 410 (5th Cir. 2003) Aggravated Felony

Possession of Short-Barrel Shotgun, TEX. PENAL CODE §46.05 US v. Rivas-Palacios, No. 00-40508, 244 F.3d 396 (5th Cir. 2001) Aggravated Felony

Retaliation

1. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §36.06 (a)
US v. Martinez-Mata, No. 03-40490, 393 F3d. 625 (5th Cir. 2004) Not a Crime of Violence

2. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §36.06(1995)
US v. Acuna-Cuadros, No. 03-20345, 385 F.3d875 (5th Cir. 2004) Not a Crime of Violence

3. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §36.06(a)(1)(A)
Not an Aggravated Felony (Gov't conceded) (Four Level Enhancement Imposed)

Sexual Assault, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §22.011(a)(1)
US v. Luciano-Rodriguez, No. 04-41016, 442 F.3d 320 (5th Cir. 2006), reh'g en banc denied, -F3.d- (5th Cir. Aug 3, 2006)
Not a Crime of Violence

Theft from a Person, TEX. PENAL CODE §31.03
US v. Luna-Montoya, No. 02-41444, 80 Fed.Appx. 334 (5th Cir. 2003)(unpub.) Not a Crime of Violence

Theft of Vehicle, Tex. Penal Code § 31.03
US v. Silva, No. 10-20433, 2011 WL 1560661 (5th Cir. 2011) Aggravated Felony

Unauthorized Use of a Motor Vehicle

1. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §31.07 (a)
US v. Armendariz-Moreno, No. 07-40225, 571 F.3d 490 (5th Cir. 2009) Not an Aggravated Felony (following remand in Armendariz-Moreno v. United States, 129 S.Ct. 993 (2009))

2. TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. §31.07 (a)
US v. Lopez-Solis, No. 07-51091, 330 Fed.Appx. 497 (5th Cir. 2009)(unpub.)
Not an Aggravated Felony

3. TEX. PENAL CODE §31.07(a)
US v. Reyes-Figueroa, No. 08-40108, 282 Fed.Appx. 330 (5th Cir. 2009)(unpub.)

Not an Aggravated Felony

Unlawfully Carrying a Firearm, TEX. PENAL CODE §42.02(c)
US v. Hernandez-Neave, No. 01-50059, 291 F.3d 296 (5th Cir. 2001) Not an Aggravated Felony

Unlawful Possession of a Firearm by Felon, TEX. PENAL CODE §46.04(a) Hernandez v. Holder, No. 09-60261, 592 F.3d 681 (5th Cir. 2009) Aggravated Felony

Unlawful Restraint, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. § 22.01 and 20.01 (1999)
US v. Hernandez-Rodriguez, No. 03-41524, 135 Fed. Appx 661 (5th Cir. 2005) Not a Crime of Violence

Utah

Vermont Virginia

Assault of a Peace Officer, Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-57 (1999) US v. Andrade-Carrillo, B-10-CR-1250
Not Crime of Violence

Assault to a Police Officer (Class 6 Felony), Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-57(C) US v. Rosales-Miranda, No. 10-41120, no cite yet (5th Cir. 2011) (unpub.) Felony

Grand Larceny, VA. CODE ANN. §18.2-95
US v. Argumedo-Perez, No. 08-10132, 326 Fed.Appx 293 (5th Cir. 2009)(unpub.) Not an Aggravated Felony

Shooting into an occupied dwelling, VA. CODE ANN. §18.5-279 US v. Alfaro, No. 04-40176, 408 F3d 204 (5th Cir. 2005)
Not a Crime of Violence

Washington3

Assault in the Second Degree, WASH. REV. CODE §9A.36.021(1)(C) (West 1988 & Supp. 1995)

3Fourth Degree Assault, §9A.36.041(1) & (2) (2004) US v. Sanchez-Torres, 136 Fed. Appx 644 (5th Cir. 2005) Not a Crime of Violence under 2L1.2(b)(1)(E)

Assault of a Peace Officer, Utah Code Ann. §76-5-102.4
US v. Miranda-Garcia, No. 09-11187, 2011 WL 2150326 (5th Cir. 2011) (unpub.) Crime Against the Person (Offense Qualifies as "Crime Against the Person" for Purposes of 8 U.S.C. § 1326(b)(1)).

Not a Crime of Violence

Assault in the Fourth Degree, WASH. REV. CODE §9A.36.041(1)
US v. Sanchez-Torres, 136 Fed. Appx. 644 (5th Cir. 2005)
Not Four Level Crime of Violence Based on 3 or More Misdemeanor Crimes of Violence

Residential Burglary, WASH. REV. CODE §9A.52.025
Not a Crime of Violence (Four Level Enhancement imposed)

Robbery, WASH. REV. CODE §9A.56.210
US v. Swanson, 502 F.Supp.2d 563 (W.D. Tex. 2007) Contact Attorney: Erik Hanshew
Not a Crime of Violence Under Career Offender

Second Degree Manslaughter, WASH. REV. CODE §9A.32.070(1) (West 1988) Contact Attorney: Todd Durden and Brad Bogan
Not a Crime of Violence

Third Degree Theft, WASH. REV. CODE §§9A.56.020(1) AND 9A.56.050
US v. Juarez-Gonzalez, No. 10-40972, 2011 WL 5554799 (5th Cir. 2011) (unpub.) Not an Aggravated Felony

West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Possession of a Forged Instrument, Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-3-603(a)(i)
US v. Martinez-Valdez, No.10-50154, 2011 WL 1057578 (5th Cir. 2011) (unpub.) Aggravated Felony

FEDERAL

Conspiring to Commit Mail Fraud, Wire Fraud, Bank Fraud, and Money Laundering, 18 USC § 371, 1341, 1343, 1344, 1956(h)
Nijhawan v. Holder, No. 08-495, 129 S.Ct. 2294 (2009)
Aggravated Felony (pursuant to 8 USC 1101(a)(43)(m)(i)("an offense that involves fraud or deceit in which the loss to the victim or victims exceeds $10,000))

Illegal Reentry, 8 U.S.C. § 1326 (b)(2)
US v. Gamboa-Garcia, No. 09-50513, 620 F.3d 546 (5th Cir. 2010)
Aggravated Felony (Court made this finding based on fact that judgment listed § 1326(b)(2) as statute of conviction.)

Riot, 18 U.S.C. §1792 (2000)
Not a Crime of Violence

Using a Telephone to Facilitate the Commission of a Narcotics Offense, 21 USC §843(b)
US v. Henao-Melano, No. 08-41313, 591 F.3d 798 (5th Cir. 2009)
Some Conduct Not Drug Trafficking Under 2L1.2(b)(1)(A)(i) But Issue Not Adequately Preserved Here

Willfully Making and Subscribing a False Tax Return and Aiding and Assisting in the Preparation of a False Tax Return, 26 U.S.C §§7206(1) and (2)
Kawashima v. Holder, No. 10-577, 132 S.Ct. 1166 (2012)
Aggravated Felony (When the Government's revenue loss exceeds $10,000.)

U.S.S.C.

A FEW SELECTED DRUG CASES:

Second or Subsequent Simple Possession

Carachuri -Rosendo v. Holder, No. 09-60 , 130 S. Ct. 2577 (2010)
Not an Aggravated Felony (unless record of conviction shows it was based on fact of a prior drug conviction)

State Drug Possession

Lopez v. Gonzalez No. 05-547, 127 S.Ct. 625 (2006)
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense under §2L1.2 (b)(1)(A)(i) and Not an Aggravated Felony

California

Manufacturing a Controlled Substance, Cal. Health & Safety Code § 11379.6 US v. Reyes-Mendoza, No. 10-11119, 665 F.3d 165 (5th Cir. 2011)
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense Under § 2L1.2 (b)(1)(A)(i)

Offer to Transport, Sell, Furnish, Administer, or Give Away a Controlled Substance, Cal. Health & Safety Code §11379(a)
US v. Garza-Lopez, No. 03-41750, 410 F.3d 268 (5th Cir. 2005)
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense under §2L1.2 (b)(1)(A)(I)

Possession of a Controlled Substance for Sale, CAL. HEALTH & SAFETY CODE §11351
US v. Leal-Vega, No. 11-50065, 680 F.3d 1160 (9th Cir. 2012)
Not Categorically a Drug Trafficking Offense (Defining "controlled substance" as substances listed in schedules under Federal CSA)

Second State Conviction for Possession, Cal. Health & Safety Code §11352 US v. Cepeda-Rios, No. 07-50731, 530 F.3d 333 (5th Cir. 2008)
Aggravated Felony (No longer an aggravated felony - see Carachuri- Rosendo v. Holder, No. 09-60 , 130 S. Ct. 2577 (2010))

Selling a Substance in Lieu of a Controlled Substance, Cal. Health & Safety Code §11355
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense and Not an Aggravated Felony under 2L1.2

Selling or Transporting Marijuana, Cal. Health & Safety Code §11360(a) (1989)
US v. Santillan-Hernandez, No. 10-10742, 432 Fed.Appx. 288 (5th Cir. 2011) (unpub.)

Not a an Aggravated Felony

Unlawful Transport, Import, Sale, Administration or Gift of Controlled Substance,
Cal. Health & Safety Code §11352
US v. Gutierrez-Ramirez, No. 03-41742, 405 F.3d 352 (5th Cir. 2005)

Not a Drug Trafficking Offense under §2L1.2 (b)(1)(A)(I)

Colorado

Conspiracy to Distribute or Manufacture a Controlled Substance, COLO. REV. STAT. §18-18-405(1)(a)
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense

Second State Conviction for Possession, COLO.REV.STAT.§18-1.3-501(1) US v. Sanchez-Villalobos, No.04-50732, 412 F.3d 572 (5th Cir. 2005) Aggravated Felony (No longer an aggravated felony - see Carachuri- Rosendo v. Holder, No. 09-60 , 130 S. Ct. 2577 (2010))

New Mexico

Conspiracy to Commit Trafficking of a Controlled Substance, N.M. Stat. §30-31-20
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense under 2L1.2(b)(1)(B) (b/c could have been by "barter or giving away of")

Criminal Solicitation to Commit Trafficking, N.M. STAT. §30-31-20(A)(2) (1978)
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense

Distribution of Marijuana (Cause the Transfer) and Criminal Solicitation to Commit Distribution of Marijuana, N.M. STAT. §30-31-22(A)(1)(C)
Not a Drug Trafficking under 2L1.2(b)(1)(B)

New York

Attempted Criminal Sale of Controlled Substance, N.Y. Penal Law §220.39 Contact Attorney: Rita Rodriguez
Not an Aggravated Felony/Four Level Enhancement Imposed

Criminal Sale of Cocaine in the Second Degree, N.Y. PENAL LAW §220.41(2003)
United States v. Davila, No. 08-60530, 381 Fed.Appx. 413 (5th Cir. 2010)
Not an Aggravated Felony (Note: offense may warrant a 4 level enhancement if sentence was entirely suspended based on US v. Rodriguez- Parra.)

North Carolina

Possession of Marijuana With Intent To Sell, N.C. Gen. Stat. §90-95
US v. Simmons, No. 08-4475, 649 F.3d 237 (4th Cir. 2011)
Not a Predicate Felony Conviction under the CSA based on Hypothetical Criminal History Enhancement

Transporting Marijuana, N.C. Gen Stat §90-95(h)
US v. Lopez-Salas, No. 06-41637, 513 F.3d 174 (5th Cir. 2008) Not a Drug Trafficking Offense Under 2L1.2 (b)(1)(A)

South Carolina

Trafficking in Cocaine, S.C. CODE ANN §44-53-370 (E)(2) Contact Attorney: Joseph Cordova
Not an Aggravated Felony/Four Level Enhancement Imposed

Texas
Delivery of a Controlled Substance, TEX. HEALTH & SAFETY CODE §481.112

1. US v. Gonzalez, No. 05-41221, 484 F.3d 712 (5th Cir. 2007)
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense under §2L1.2 (b)(1)(A)& (B)6

2. US v. Morales-Martinez, No. 06-40467, 496 F.3d 356 (5th Cir. 2007)

Not a Drug Trafficking Offense Under §2L1.2 (b)(1)(A)6

3. US v. Fuentes, No. 06-20325, 245 Fed. Appx. 358 (5th Cir. 2007)(unpub.)

Not an Aggravated Felony6

4. US v. Ibarra-Luna, No. 09-40768, 628 F.3d 712 (5th Cir. 2011) Not an Aggravated Felony6

Knowing and Intentional Delivery of Cocaine, TEX. PENAL CODE ANN §481.112(a)
US v. Price, No. 07-40040, 516 F.3d 285 (5th Cir. 2008)
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense 2K2.1(a)(2) but may apply under 2L1.2(b)(1)(A)(i)6

Possession of a Controlled Substance, TEX. HEALTH & SAFETY CODE §481.115 US v. Estrada-Mendoza, 475 F.3d 258 (5th Cir. 2007)
Not an Aggravated Felony

Possession of Marijuana, 2,000 lbs. or less but over 50 lbs., TEX. HEALTH & SAFETY CODE §481.12(b)(5)

6For Illegal Reentry Offenses Committed on or after November 1, 2008, Offer to Sell Under 2L1.2, Application Note 1(B)(iv) is a Drug Trafficking Offense.

6For Illegal Reentry Offenses Committed on or after November 1, 2008, Offer to Sell Under 2L1.2, Application Note 1(B)(iv) is a Drug Trafficking Offense.

Arce Vences v. Mukasey, No. 06-6003, 512 F.3d 167 (5th Cir. 2007) Not an Aggravated Felony

Second State Conviction for Possession, TEX. HEALTH & SAFETY CODE §481.115

1. US v. Andrade-Aguilar, No. 07-41132, 570 F.3d 213 (5th Cir. 2009) Not an Aggravated Felony (See Carachuri-Rosendo v. Holder, No. 09-60 , 130 S. Ct. 2577 (2010))

2. US v. Rodriguez, No. 08-41337, 348 Fed.Appx. 960 (5th Cir. 2009)(unpub.)
Aggravated Felony (No longer an aggravated felony - see Carachuri- Rosendo v. Holder, No. 09-60 , 130 S. Ct. 2577 (2010))

3. US v. Reyes, No. 09-40596, 357 Fed.Appx. 596 (5th Cir. 2009)(unpub.) Aggravated Felony (No longer an aggravated felony - see Carachuri- Rosendo v. Holder, No. 09-60 , 130 S. Ct. 2577 (2010))

Second State Conviction for Possession, TEX. HEALTH & SAFETY CODE § 481.117(b)
Carachuri-Rosendo v. Holder, No. 07-61006, 570 F.3d 263 (5th Cir. 2009) Aggravated Felony (No longer an aggravated felony - see Carachuri- Rosendo v. Holder, No. 09-60 , 130 S. Ct. 2577 (2010))

Utah

General

Entirely Suspended Sentence in Drug Trafficking Case

US v. Rodriguez-Parra, No. 08-40708, 581 F.3d 227 (5th Cir. 2009)
Not a Drug Trafficking Offense Warranting a Twelve Level Enhancement

Sentence of Imprisonment Upon Revocation of State Probation in Drug Trafficking Case
US v. Bustillos-Pena, No. 09-20360, 612 F.3d 863 (5th Cir. 2010)
Court finds 16 level enhancement for drug trafficking NOT warranted due to ambiguous Sentencing Guideline under 2L1.2 requiring defendant be deported AFTER a sentence was imposed that exceeded thirteen months where defendant sentenced INITIALLY to probation on state drug trafficking conviction, deported, re-entered illegally, and sentenced to imprisonment that exceeded thirteen months upon revocation of state probation.

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